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4060B 14-stage ripple-carry binary counter/divider and oscillator hot stuff !! hot stuff !! hot stuff !!



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4060B

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1. Pin connections

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4060 pin connections

The 4060 available from Rapid Online contains an easy to use astable, or oscillator stage, followed by a 14-stage binary counter/divider. These subsystems are arranged inside the 4060, as shown in the function diagram:

4060 function diagram

Pulses from the astable are passed to the binary counter. Not all of the outputs of the binary counter are available externally. Pulses at O3, pin 7, are divided by 24=16 compared with the initial astable frequency. Pulses at O4 have half the frequency of pulses at O3, and so on. Output O10 is not available externally.

Pulses at the final output, O13, pin 3, are divided by 214=16 384 compared with the initial astable frequency.

Pulses are enabled when the RESET, pin 12, is connected LOW and dis-enabled, or inhibited, when RESET is connected HIGH.

Think about using the 4060 whenever you want a source of pulses at slow frequencies. If you want pulses every 10 seconds, or more slowly, a circuit using the 4060 will be cost effective and more accurate than using a 555 astable. With the 4060, a small value non-polarised capacitor is used at the beginning of the divider chain. This is cheaper and has a higher tolerance than the polarised capacitor you would need to used with the 555.

 
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2. Basic operation.


 

The circuit diagram for a 4060 RC astable is:

4060 RC astable connections

The timing components are RT and CT. The practical range of values for RT is from 10 kΩ to 1 MΩ, while CT can have any value from 100 pF upwards.

Within these constraints, the frequency of the astable pulses is given by:

design formula

Remember about compatible units when making design calculations for astables and monostables:

resistance
capacitance
period
frequency
Ω
F
s
Hz
μF
s
Hz
μF
ms
kHz

If RT=10 kΩ and CT=10 nF=0.01 μF:

R1 should be large: 470 kΩ is ideal. Here is the circuit on prototype board:

 

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down open in a new window components available from Rapid Online 4060 pins Prototype board layout for 4060 astable circuit

This is an easy circuit to assemble. There are just three components in addition to the 4060. Don't forget to link RESET to 0 V.

Experiment with the buttons under the diagram to find out what they do. If you open in a new window, you can maximise the prototype board layout to fill the screen. Drag the slider to zoom in.

Set the oscilloscope VOLTS/DIV to 2 V per square and TIME/DIV to 1 ms per square. What is the period of the pulses at O3, pin 7? Check that the TIME/DIV control is in its calibrated position. Count squares and include both the HIGH time and the LOW time in your estimate of pulse duration.

The period of the pulses should be:

calculating period

The measured period should be between 3.5 and 4.0 ms. The frequency is sometimes a little slower than you might expect because ot the capacitance between the tracks of the prototype board. This 'stray' capacitance add to the value of CT.

Now move the oscilloscope link to monitor some of the other counter outputs. Move the link first to O4, pin 5, then to O5, pin 4. Check the locations of hte outputs from the connection diagram or the function diagram of the 4060.

The outputs follow the pattern of binary UP counting, as follows:

Binary counting at 4060 outputs

As you can see, the count advances on the falling edge of the preceding output. (This doesn't mean that falling edges trigger the bistables inside the binary counter.)

What is the expected frequency of the pulses at the slowest output, O13, pin 3? You find out by dividing the initial astable frequency by 214:

This corresponds to a period of:

The final output should pulse once every 3.5 to 4.0 s. Is this what you observe? You might like to connect a transistor/LED indicator so that you can see the output pulses from pin 3.

 
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3. Crystal-controlled astable


Resistor/capacitor controlled astables are accurate enough fo many applications but, if you are designing a digital clock, you need a much more accurate source of pulses. A 4060 astable controlled by a watch crystal is accurate to a few seconds per month. Here is the circuit:

4060 crystal-controlled astable

The operation of a crystal-controlled astable can be affected by the layout of components. It is important to keep the components close together and to avoid long link wires. In the prototype board version of the circuit, the inside track on the right hand side of the board is connected to 0 V, and the outer track is connected to +9 V:

down up open in a new window components available from Rapid Online 4060 pins 4060 crystal-controlled astable

With this layout, the 4060 crystal-controlled astable should oscillate. If not, try reducing the values of the 10 MΩ and 220 kΩ resistors. With other crystals, different values of resistor and capacitor may be needed. Selecting components is sometimes a process of trial and error.

The frequency of the crystal can be 'tweaked' very slightly by altering the value of the capacitor connected to pin 11. It may be worth inserting a 2-22 pF trimmer capacitor when the circuit is transferred to printed circuit board.

With a 215=32 768 Hz watch crystal, the frequency of pulses at O13, pin 3, should be exactly 2 Hz.

The 4060 can be used with crystals up to around 10 MHz.

 
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4. One hour monostable

A counter/divider can be incorporated into a monostable in order to genererate a really long delay. With the 4060, a period of an hour or more is easily achieved:

Long delay monostable

When the circuit is first switched ON, the 100 nF capacitor pulls the pin 6 input of the NAND gate bistable LOW briefly so that the bistable is RESET.

When the 'go' button is pressed, the bistable is SET and the 4060 is enabled. Counting starts at a frequency determined by RT and CT. In this case, RT=180 kΩ and CT=1 μF. The 4060 astable frequency is:

The O3 output, pin 7, pulses at 2.42÷16=0.15 Hz. That is, pin 7 pulses pulses about once every 6.6 s. The 4060 continues to count until the O13 output, pin 3, goes HIGH. Pin 3 is linked to the NAND gate bistable therough a NOT gate so that the bistable is RESET. This happens when 213=8192 pulses have been counted.

The total delay is:

With the component values given, the monostable period is 3385 s, around 56 minutes. 1 hour=3600 s. If a dealy of more than 1 hour is needed, either RT or CT can be increased. What would be the delay if RT=220 kΩ?

Here is the circuit on prototype board:

up open in a new window components available from Rapid Online 4011 pins:4011 4060 pins:4060 Long delay monostable

When the miniature tactile switch is operated, the red LED will iluminate and the green LED should start to pulse every 6.6 s. You could wait for an hour to find out if the monostable period is correct. Instead, try replacing the 1 μF capacitor used for CT with a smaller value such as 10 nF or 100 nF. This makes the astable pulse faster and shortens the overall delay. When you are confident the circuit is working correctly, reinsert the 1 μF.

 
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5. Links


Excellent
reference book..

5.1 Data sheets

The links below allow you to download documents in Adobe Acrobat ©, PDF, format. In the unlikely event that you don't already have Acrobat Reader, you can download the latest version direct from Adobe:

open document 4060 data sheet (Phillips Semiconductors, 1995)

open document 4060 data sheet (ST Microelectronics, 2003)

5.2 DOCTRONICS links

games timer Games Timer Project

555 555 timer

4017 4017 counter

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